All moderate alcohol consumption studies are “all over the charts” because they are epidemiological and plagued by confounding factors no matter how hard investigators work to control for those.
Epidemiology is a correlative method that cannot conclude causation. This is true even with newer statistical techniques such as Mendelian Randomization.For an extended examination of the latter, please see: The Mendelian Randomization by Millwood et al.: Observations and Expressions of Concern.
This ad-free article is made possible by the financial support of the
Center for Research on Environmental Chemicals in Humans: a 501(c)(3) non-profit.
Please consider making a tax-deductible donation for continued biomedical research.